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Understanding IMSMA Information Model

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{| class="wikitable"
|+ Items
! Item
! Description
| Assistance
| Information about assistance for a person injured or affected by an accident
| ObjectProcess/ProductActivity
|-
| Education activity
| Information about an activity designed to inform or educate people, such as about local hazards(e.g. Risk Education or Victim rights)| ObjectProcess/ProductActivity
|-
| Quality Management (QM) activity
| Information about an quality-improvement activity, such as an effort to control and monitor the clearance and/or reduction of land or activities
| ObjectProcess/ProductActivity
|-
|}
Items are entered into {{IMSMANG}} by means of a Data Entry Form. Typically, each category of items has its own Data Entry Form template for recording information specific to that category. When entered into {{IMSMANG}}, all Data Entry Form items must be assigned to a Location, which is tied to the country’s gazetteer, or political or administrative structure. The items can then be traced back to the Country Structure so that users can easily report data such as the number and size of hazardous areas within a particular province.
Items are entered into {{IMSMANG}} by means of a Data Entry Form. Typically, each category of items has its own Data Entry Form template for recording information specific to that category. When entered into {{IMSMANG}}, all Data Entry Form items must be assigned to a location, which is tied to the country’s gazetteer, or political or administrative structure. The items can then be traced back to the country structure so that users can easily report data such as the number and size of hazardous areas within a particular province.<center>
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</center>Part of defining and documenting an information model includes defining the useful information attributes for each {{IMSMANG}} item. {{IMSMANG}} comes with more than 1,000 [[Information Classification Data Dictionary| data fields already defined]] as well as the capability to create additional custom-defined fields (CDFs). This makes it important to critically assess which data fields are useful to a programme for decision-making, analysis and reporting and to focus on those while ignoring data fields that don’t provide additional value. Limiting information to only that which is useful to the programme provides long-term benefits including reducing the data collection and data entry burden and improving system performance. And, while many data fields may be collected for each {{IMSMANG}} item, some fields may be more important for analysis than others. For example, whether a victim has been injured or killed may be more important for analysis than the victim’s nationality.
Each of the items can be divided into categories or types so users can collect information for each category/type. For example, Land are normally divided into different categories/types and each category of land are managed differently. Using categories/types, information managers can:
Additionally, information managers can customise the categories so that unused categories can be inactivated and other categories added. The same is true for all top-level items within {{IMSMANG}}, which lets information managers specify their exact information model, including the relationships among item categories, and adjust the model as their needs change over time. To accurately map the information model for a Mine Action Programme, it’s helpful to evaluate the available item categories and determine if changes to the information model in {{IMSMANG}} are required. While these values can be customised after system setup, understanding the types of information for each item is critical to implementing an effective workflow in {{IMSMANG}}.
 
{{note|<b>Document the following decisions about items:</b>
 
* data to be collected and managed in {{IMSMANG}}
* data fields that are not predefined in {{IMSMANG}} and should be created as CDFs
}}
[[Image:Understanding IMSMA Information Model - Example of Documented Land.png|center|400px|''Example of Documented Land''300px]]
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''Example of documentation''
}}
[[Image:Understanding IMSMA Information Model - Example of Documented Auxiliary Data ver2.png|center|400px|''Understanding IMSMA Information Model - Example of documentation''300px]]
<div align="center">
''Example of Documented Auxiliary Data''
</div>
==Data Entry Forms and SummariesSummary items==__NOEDITSECTION__A <b>'''Data Entry Form</b> ''' is a template used for data entry and storage of information e.g. about a victim.
The Data Entry Forms Form(s) for a specific victim object (e.g. the Victim ''Jane Doe'') are summarised and displayed in a <b>'''Summary</b>'''.
<b>'''Reconciliation</b> ''' is the process of assigning the deciding if information in a Data Entry Form to should update an existing item object or creating a new itemobject/Summary.
Or with other words, all information is entered into {{IMSMANG}} via a Data Entry Form. When when a Data Entry Form process is completed, it started the first decision is either reconciled to an existing item (that is, it is determined to be information about an item that already exists in {{IMSMANG}}) or it is reconciled as new (that is, it is determined choose which of the several different methods/actions for Data Entry to be information about an item that does not already exist in {{IMSMANG}})use.
With this approach, users can collect and store multiple Data Entry Forms about the same item over time so that the entire history of the item is preserved in the system. The approach also provides a complete [[Audit log | audit trail ]] of all changes made to any information so that information managers can answer the question, "What did we know and when did we know it?"
As subsequent information is collected about a specific attribute of an item, {{IMSMANG}} updates the item’s Summary on an attribute-by-attribute basis. For example, Data Entry Form #1 collects some initial information about a Land. It sets The calculation of the priority to "Medium" Summary is done based on '''Date of Information''' and specifies therefore it is important that the land contains AP mines and Date of information is 25,000 sqm. Data Entry Form #2 updates information about reflecting the land area after a subsequent assessment. The report sets age of the priority to "High" information and specifies the presence of AP and AT mines, but it does not change the size or the status date of the land area. Data Entry Form #3 updates the land area's size and status after clearance operations are complete. The figure below shows how the land area's Summary is updated after all three reports are entered entry into the system{{IMSMANG}}.
[[Image:Understanding_IMSMA_Information_Model_-_Updating_CVs ver2.png|center|500px|''Example of Updating Summaries''400px]]
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''Example of Updating SummariesSummary items''
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Summary calculations are based on the Date of Information/Date of Report on the Data Entry Form, so it is possible to enter data into the system out of chronological order (that is, to collect past #1 collects some initial information about an item) without disrupting a Land. It sets the Summary. For example, if a fourth Data Entry Form were collected priority to "Medium" and dated between Data Entry Form #1 specifies that the land contains AP mines and Data Entry Form #2is 25, it would have no effect on the Summary as all information in the example was updated with Data Entry Form #2 or later000 sqm.
{{Note| Inserting a Data Entry Form in #2 updates information about the land area after a chain subsequent assessment. The report sets the priority to "High" and specifies the presence of AP and AT mines, but it does not change the size or the status of updates must be done carefully so the expected end-result will be archived}}land area.
===Location Folder===__NOEDITSECTION__A location in {{IMSMANG}} is a grouping of information, whether logical, geographical or sociopolitical Data Entry Form #3 updates the land area's size and may be seen as a worksitestatus after clearance operations are complete. Using locations, users can group data that belongs together or The figure above shows how the land area's Summary is associated with each other and handle it as a group, including facilitating data entry, searching and running updated after all three reports. To do this, locations must link the data to the country’s political or administrative structure (existing gazetteer), whether at the province, district or town level. This method also provides geographical context to are entered into the datasystem. As shown in the figure below, locations in {{IMSMANG}} are governed by two simple rules:
*all data {{Warning| A Data Entry Form that is changing existing information must be linked to have a location*all locations must Date of information that is later than the Data Entry Form that it is updating the calculation of the Summary item(s) are based on Date of Information. When the date is earlier or the '''same''', the Summary item will '''not''' be linked to the country structureupdated.}}
===Location ===__NOEDITSECTION__
A country's official administrative structure, also known as Gazetteer, should be the base for the Country Structure used in {{IMSMANG}}. Sometimes the official administrative structure has not been updated for a long time or it is not detailed enough using it for a geographical placeholder, worksite, for the Mine Action programme and that is why the item Location has been introduced in {{IMSMANG}}. Two fundamental decisions to make when customising {{IMSMANG}} is to decide what Country Structure level Locations will be consistently linked to and what concept Locations will represent. Typical concepts that a Location is used to represent include:
*a work area (where activities are taking place)*a community (a group of people affected by the mine/UXO/IED threat)*the nearest town (the town closest to where the activity is taking place) Using Locations, users can group data that belongs together or is associated with each other and in that way get a better overview, facilitate searching and creating reports. The Locations is the link between the Country Structure, whether at the province, district or town level and the Mine Action data. As shown in the figure below, data in {{IMSMANG}} are governed by two simple rules: *all data must be assigned to a Location*all Locations must be linked to the Country Structure [[Image:Understanding IMSMA Information Model - Using Locations to Link Mine Action Data to the Country Structure.png|center|''Using Locations to Link Mine Action Data to the Country Structure'']]
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''Using Locations to Link Mine Action Data to the Country Structure''
</div>
 Two fundamental decisions to make when customising {{IMSMANG}} is to decide what country structure level locations will be consistently linked to and what concept locations will represent. Typical concepts that a location is used to represent include: *a work area (where activities are taking place)*a community (a group of people affected by the mine/UXO threat)*the nearest town (the town closest to where the activity is taking place) {{note|<b>Document the following decisions about locationsLocations:</b> * what concept locations Locations will represent* what country structure Country Structure level locations Locations will be linked to
}}
 
===Assigning and Linking===__NOEDITSECTION__
<b>Assigning</b> refers to the assignment of an item to a location Location for the purposes of grouping information. All items must be assigned a locationLocation.
<b>Linking</b> refers to the association between items for the purposes of analysis. Linking is optional, for example, when linking clearances Activities to minefieldsAccidents but linking is very important to do so effective reporting will be possible.
{{IMSMANG}} provides the capability to assign items to locations Locations and create links between items, a function that shows the relationships between items and processes and that enriches the data collected. Assignments and links are defined during the Data Entry Form approval process. An item is assigned to one locationLocation, which ties the item to the country structure and allows for reporting data by area. The same item can then be linked to as many other items as necessary. In this way, {{IMSMANG}} supports the idea of linking activities to land, victims to accidents or any item to any other item. When used with item categories, linking adds a powerful capacity to implement an information workflow and create rich and useful data for decision makers. To ensure the integrity of this data, system administrators must clearly specify the kinds of links to track in {{IMSMANG}}.
The example below shows how users can build a workflow of relationships among items to model the information management process for their Mine Action Programmes. The figure shows how the Summary changes with each activity that is linked to the original Land.
# The Land starts its life-cycle as ''SHA'' with a status of Open in this example.
# When the technical survey clearance starts and the first Progress report is linked to the Land, the Land classification status should be updated to ''CHA'' and the status changed to ''Worked On''.
# Finally, after linking the Completion Report the land's status should be updated to ''Closed''.
The result is one Land whose information is updated over time by the three Activities linked to the land. This way to track information can be used to represent the information management process and status rules accurately for a Land Release, Risk management or other process model.
 [[Image:Understanding IMSMA Information Model - Example of How Current View Statuses Change.png|center|500px|''Example of How Summary Statuses Change''400px]]
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''Example of How Summary Statuses Change''
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The {{IMSMANG}} information model is flexible enough for each Mine Action Programme to customise the system to support its needs. For example, implementations that do not cover Education activities do not need to complete information about Education activities, and they still retain full utility of the system. Similarly, implementations that only cover Victim tracking and Education activities only can disregard Land and Activities without any loss of utility.
Although any item can be linked to any other item, not all relationships necessarily make sense for every implementation. The diagrams below describe some of the more common logical relationships among items and can serve as the basis for an information model when implementing {{IMSMANG}}.
 [[Image:Understanding IMSMA Information Model - Example Relationships Among Items.png|center|550px|''Example Relationships Among Items'']]
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''Note: Connections to Country Structure and Location have been omitted from the example''
</div>
 
The rationale for each relationship or link should also be documented so the meaning is understood. These relationships are used when entering data to ensure that the links between items are available for searching and reporting, like when searching for all Land that have Accidents linked to them.
{{note|<b>Document the following business rules about assigning and linking:</b>
 
* which items will have links between them, for example, Victims should always be linked to Accidents
* rationale or logical meaning of the relationships between items, for example, a link between a Clearance and an Accident means that the Accident happened during the Clearance
* what effects linking has on the items, for example, a link between a Clearance and Land may indicate that the land status should change from ''Open'' to ''Worked on''
}}
 
 
===The Workbench===__NOEDITSECTION__
The Workbench is a holding area / import inbox where Data Entry Forms are found until they are approved. There are three possible steps in the reconciliation process:# Save# Submit# Approve For data quality purposes, it is important that the data is adequately checked. With multiple permission levels for the Reconciliation, different users can be assigned different permissions, allowing Mine Action Programmes to implement a data-entry workflow that distinguishes between data entry and data verification roles.  Until a Data Entry Form is approved, it exists only in the Workbench and does not update any Summaries. The report can still be modified or deleted. When a Data Entry Form is approved, it becomes part of the Summaries and will be visible on the map.  [[Image:WB_Status.png|175px|center|225px]]
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''Approval workflow / Data Entry Form Statuses / Reconciliation workflow''
</div>
The Workbench is a holding area / import inbox where Data Entry Forms are found until they are approved. There are four possible steps in the Approval process:
# [[Save Data Entry Forms| Save]]
# [[Submit Data Entry Forms | Submit]]
# [[Reject Data Entry Forms | Reject ]]
# [[Approve Data Entry Forms | Approve]]
For data quality purposes, it is important that the data is adequately checked. With multiple permission levels for the Approval, different users can be assigned different permissions, allowing Mine Action Programmes to implement a data-entry workflow that distinguishes between data '''entry''' and data '''verification''' roles.
Until a Data Entry Form is approved, it exists only in the Workbench and does not update any Summary items. The report can still be modified or deleted. The Approval will trigger an update of an existing item (Summary) or creating of a new item depending of chosen Action. If the Summary item has geospatial data, it may be visible in the Map Pane.
{{NavBox Information Management}}
 [[Category:Information managementNAA]]
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